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Glossary - a short guide for all...

1. Yogurt/Bulgarian yogurt: Yogurt is a dairy food that has been consumed for millennia across southeastern Europe and western Asia. It became defined by its bacterial composition when a Bulgarian student Stamen Grigorov discovered the Lactobacillus Bulgaricus and symbiotic relations with another lactobacteria called Streptococcus thermophilus in the Bulgarian version of the yogurt, which popularized the discovery among the scientific community. Bulgarian yogurt becomes the standard for this kind of food and the best-researched type of yogurt, which influenced future regulations.

2. Probiotic Yogurt: Yogurt is dairy food made by the fermentation of dairy milk triggered by two types of lactobacteria: Lactobacillus Bulgaricus and Streptococcus Thermophilus. In the past few decades, when other species are added to these two (for example, Acidophilus or Bifidum bacteria), some people refer to this enhanced combination as a "probiotic yogurt" to distinguish it from the other yogurt, which is also probiotic.

3. Kefir: Kefir is a dairy food/drink, which is usually made from the fermentation of dairy milk triggered by lactobacteria. Unlike yogurt, there is slow-acting yeast in it as well.

4. Yogurt Substitute: This is any non-dairy drink/food which is frequently made with the addition of lactic bacteria. As the only plant-based milk which delivers the same texture is the soy milk (when made authentically), other additives are frequently used when made with coconut, almond, or rice substitutes for milk to make it similar to yogurt’s taste or texture.

5. Viili: This is a Scandinavian dairy drink/food, which is made from the dairy fermentation which is triggered by lactobacteria, yeast, and yeast-like fungus.

6. Skyr: This is an Icelandic type of dairy food, and due to the technology made is considered to be an Icelandic cheese. However, the texture and taste are similar to mild and creamy yogurt. It is not defined by the bacterial composition. Recently a new type of commercial product named "Skyr" appeared in some shops with the only purpose to differentiate it from other similar products and create a new marketing category. This marketing product should not be confused with the real Skyr, which is made with no sugar and additives.

7. Greek Yogurt: It is not a bacterial-defined yogurt and can be made with two bacterial strains or more, but it is defined by its texture and country of origin. The texture traditionally was achieved by straining the yogurt. Later it was popularized by the Greek merchants, and until recently any very thick yogurt was called Greek. Some commercial manufacturers thicken the yogurt not by straining it but by adding artificial additives. Nowadays, a Greek yogurt is any thick, strained yogurt made in Greece.

8. Greek-Style Yogurt: After a specific lawsuit in the UK, it was decided that the phrase '' Greek yogurt'' must be used only if the product is made in Greece. When the same product is made outside Greece, the name should be “Greek-style yogurt,” and nowadays this is respected in European Union.

9. Balkan-Style Yogurt: A bit milder version of the Bulgarian yogurt, which we named ''Balkan Style'' to distinguish them in early 2010. Balkan is the name of the mountains across Bulgaria and also used in the name of the entire Balkan Peninsula. To our surprise, some competitive companies started using this name a few years later, utterly unaware of this artificial category. The yogurt has been consumed on the Balkans for millennia. Still, none of the people did name it after the mountain in Bulgaria.

10. Acidophilus Yogurt: This is a dairy drink/food in which fermentation is triggered by Lactobacillus Bulgaricus, Streptococcus Thermophilus, and Lactobacillus Acidophilus bacteria. It can also be called "probiotic yogurt,'' as it is a bit more enhanced combination.

11. Bifido Yogurt: This is a dairy drink/food in which fermentation is triggered by Lactobacillus Bulgaricus, Streptococcus Thermophilus, and Bifidus bacteria. It can also be called "probiotic yogurt,'' as it is a bit more enhanced combination.

12. Pure Acidophilus Yogurt: This is a dairy drink/food in which fermentation is triggered only by Lactobacillus Acidophilus bacteria.

13. Mild Kefir: This was called ''mild'' to distinguish it from the other freeze-dried kefir we have. It contains lactic acid bacteria and yeast, but does not contain ''Lactobacillus Bulgaricus,'' which made the end product a bit milder in taste and a bit creamier.

14. Juice extracted starter: This is a blend of lactic acid bacteria which was artificially grown and extracted from the juice. It works best with dairy and soy milk. It was created to satisfy vegan customers. They need to have a genuinely vegan blend, which can be used with soy or a cashew substitute for milk. It can also be called a "probiotic yogurt,'' as it is a bit more enhanced combination when prepared with dairy milk.

15. L.Rhamnosus and L.Gasseri Yogurt: As the name suggests, this is a combination of those two lactic acid species in addition to the standard ones like Lactobacilus Bulgaricus and Streptococus Thermophillus. It also can be called a "probiotic'' yogurt, as it is a more enhanced blend.

16. Kefir starter: This is a blend of lactic acid bacteria and slow-acting yeast only; a pure combination in which the yeast has not built up so-called kefir grains, which are sugar clusters and in most cases those clusters, although present, are not with a visible size. This guarantees a milder, more hygienic product.

17. Kefir Grains: An already matured version of kefir with sugar and protein clusters already built to a visible degree. Nowadays it is started from a starter in most cases and then recultured hundred of times until the ''grains'' sugar clusters build-up to a visible size.

18. Water Kefir grains: This is a sugar cluster grown and made by fermentation with juices or sugar water. It cannot be freeze-dried.

19. Incubation Time: This is the time when you incubate the mix and usually describe the fermentation time which also takes place. It usually includes temperature control of the fermentation and can be between three hours for recultivation and 12-24 hours for the first batch (also called the “mother” culture)

20. Milk Fermentation: This is the growth stages of the bacterial species which consequently convert the milk into yogurt or kefir

21. Thickening: Thickening takes place when the lactic bacteria eat the lactose in the milk (other sugars in the plant-based milk), and then the side product ''lactic acid'' thickens the fats in the milk. For excellent natural thickening, you need to use medium to high-fat and protein milk that also contains sugar.

To be continued...

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